Prehistory 50000 BCE–1624 CE
Kingdom of Middag 1540–1732
Dutch Formosa 1624–1662
Kingdom of Tungning 1662–1683
Qing Dynasty 1683–1895
Republic of Taiwan 1895
Japanese Rule 1895–1945
Post-War Taiwan 1945–present
Prehistory/史前時代 50000 BCE–1624 CE
The prehistory of Taiwan includes the late Paleolithic era. During that time, roughly 50,000 BC to 10,000 BC, people were already living in Taiwan.
Evidence shows that the earliest civilization found in Taiwan was the Changbin civilization (長濱文化), this prehistoric site was found in Eastern Taiwan. Human skeletons were also found in Zuojhen, Tainan, therefore called the Zuojhen people. Yuanshan (圓山) and other prehistoric sites were found in Taipei Basin. However, there isn't enough evidence to be sure which group of people left the artifacts.
Kingdom of Middag/大肚王國 1540–1732
The Kingdom of Middag was a kingdom located in central Taiwan. The kingdom was established by the Taiwanese aboriginal tribes of Popora, Babuza, Pazeh, and Hoanya. The kingdom occupied present-day Taichung, Changhua, and Nantou. It was established in the 16th century, before the Europeans arrived in Taiwan. It survived the rulings of European colonists and the Kingdom of Tungning led by Koxinga. However, the kingdom was conquered in approximately 1732 by Qing forces under the administration of Yongzheng Emperor.
The Kingdom of Middag is the western name for the kingdom. In Taiwan, it is known as the Kingdom of Dadu (traditional Chinese: 大肚王國; pinyin: Dàdù Wángguó; Wade-Giles: Tà-tù Wáng-kuó), Dadu being the modern-day name of the historical capital Middag.
大肚王國(Kingdom of Middag)
- Capital: Middag
- Language(s): Formosan
- Government: Monarchy
- King Dorida Camachat ?-1648
- King Camachat Maloe 1648-?
- Historical era Age of Discovery: Established 1540s, Collapsed 1732
Dutch Formosa/荷治台灣政府 1624–1662
Dutch Formosa refers to the period of colonial Dutch government on Formosa (now known as Taiwan), lasting from 1624 to 1662. In the context of the Age of Discovery the Dutch East India Company established its presence on Taiwan to trade with China and Japan, and also to interdict Portuguese and Spanish trade and colonial activities in East Asia.
The time of Dutch rule saw economic development in Taiwan, including both large-scale hunting of deer and the cultivation of rice and sugar by imported labour from Fujian in China. The government also attempted to convert the aboriginal inhabitants to Christianity and suppress some cultural activities they found disagreeable (such as forced abortion and habitual nakedness), in other words, to "civilise" the inhabitants of the island.
However, they were not universally welcomed and uprisings by both aborigines and recent Han Chinese arrivals were crushed brutally by the Dutch military on more than one occasion. The colonial period was brought to an end by the invasion of Koxinga's army after just 37 years.
- Capital: Fort Zeelandia
- Language(s): Dutch, Formosan languages
- Religion: Protestantism (Dutch Reformed Church)
- Government: Colony
- Governor Marten Sonk 1624–1625
- Governor Frederick Coyett 1656–1662
- Historical era Age of Discovery: Established 1624, Siege of Fort Zeelandia 1661–1662, Surrender of Fort Zeelandia February 1, 1662
- Currency: Dutch guilder
Kingdom of Tungning/東寧王國 1662–1683
The Kingdom of Tungning was a Han Chinese government which ruled Taiwan, between 1661 and 1683. It was a pro-Ming Dynasty kingdom, and was founded by Koxinga, after the destruction of Ming power by the Manchu. Koxinga was son of a former merchant who styled himself as a Ming Dynasty loyalist; he hoped to marshal his troops on Taiwan and use it as a base to regain mainland China for the Ming Dynasty.
東寧王國(Kingdom of Tungning)
- Capital: Tungtu
- Language(s): Hoklo
- Government: Monarchy
- King of Tungning Zheng Jing 1662-1682
- King of Tungning Zheng Ke-Shuang 1682-1683
- Historical era Qing Dynasty: Siege of Fort Zeelandia February 1, 1662. Battle of Penghu 1683, 1683
- Population: 1664 est. 140,000, 1683 est. 200,000
- Currency: Copper Coin and Silver tael issued by the kingdom
Qing Dynasty/台灣清治時期 1683–1895
The Chinese Qing Dynasty ruled Taiwan from 1683 to 1895. Qing China in 1683 sent an army led by general Shi Lang and annexed Taiwan.
Qing Emperor Kangxi annexed Taiwan because he wanted to remove the remaining resistance forces against the Qing Dynasty. However, Qing did not want to develop Taiwan over aggressively as this may encourage any potential resistance force to build a base in Taiwan. Accordingly, the early Qing Dynasty ruled Taiwan passively. Taiwan was governed as part of Fujian province at the time, only becoming a separate province later.
There were more than a hundred rebellions during the early Qing Dynasty reign. The frequency of rebellions, riots, and civil strife in Qing Dynasty Taiwan is evoked by the common saying "every three years an uprising; every five years a rebellion" (三年一反、五年一亂).
台灣清治時期(Taiwan under Qing Dynasty rule)
- Capital: Tainan
- Language(s): Mandarin, Hoklo, Hakka
- Government: Monarchy
- Governor Liu Mingchuan 1885-1891
- Governor Tang Ching-sung 1894-1895
- Historical era Qing Dynasty: Conquered 1683, New nation declared 1895
- Currency: Qing Tael
Republic of Taiwan/台灣民主國 1895
The Republic of Taiwan (traditional Chinese: 臺灣民主國; pinyin: Táiwān Mínzhǔguó; lit. "Democratic State of Taiwan"; official English name: Formosan Republic, Taiwan Republic; also called Republic of Formosa) was a short-lived republic that existed on the island of Taiwan in 1895, between the formal cession of Taiwan by the Qing Dynasty of China to the Empire of Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki and the arrival of Japanese troops and assumption of Japanese sovereignty. Though sometimes claimed by certain historians or politicians as the first Asian republic to have been proclaimed, it was predated by the Lanfang Republic, which had been established in 1777.
The republic was proclaimed by a group of pro-Qing high officials and members of the local gentry in order to, it was hoped, prevent Japanese acquisition of Taiwan which China had just ceded to Japan under the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Many of these officials fled the island upon Japan's invasion. On May 24, 1895 an English translation of its declaration of independence was sent to all the embassies on the island, followed by a ceremony the next day. It managed to issue stamps under the auspices of the republic. From the onset, the founders of the republic made it clear that their actions were out of loyalty to the Qing and declared themselves to be tributaries of the Qing state.
In spite of the similarity in name, modern-day proponents of a "Republic of Taiwan" (as part of the Taiwan independence movement) tend to disavow a connection between the two, thus neither claiming a revival of that entity nor regarding themselves as political offspring of that movement. The reason for this is that the first Republic of Taiwan was created as an act of loyalty to the government of Qing while modern supporters of the Republic of Taiwan tend to distance themselves from mainland China.
台灣民主國(Republic of Taiwan)
- Capital: Taipei (Moved to Tainan)
- Language(s): Mandarin, Taiwanese, Hakka, Formosan languages
- Government: Republic
- President Tang Ching-sung May 1895-June 1895
- President Liu Yung-fu (de facto) June 1895-Oct. 1895
- Historical era New Imperialism: Declared May 24, 1895, Conquered October 23, 1895
- Population: 1895 est. 2,980,000
- Currency: Qing Tael
Japanese Rule/台灣日治時期 (大日本帝國臺灣) 1895–1945
The Japanese colonial period, Japanese rule or the Imperial Japanese occupation, in the context of Taiwan's history, refers to the period between 1895 and 1945 during which Taiwan was a Japanese colony. The expansion into Taiwan was a part of Japan's general policy of southward expansion during the late 19th century.
As Taiwan was Japan's first overseas colony, Japanese intentions were to turn the island into a showpiece "model colony". As a result, much effort was made to improve the island's economy, industry, public works and culture. However, Japanese rule of Taiwan also had a negative side, such as the prostitution of Taiwanese women as comfort women.
The relative failures of immediate post-World War II rule by the Kuomintang led to a certain degree of nostalgia amongst the older generation of Taiwanese who experienced both. This has affected, to some degree, issues such as national identity, ethnic identity and the Taiwan independence movement.
1930 Wushe Incident
The "Wùshè Incident" (Chinese and Japanese: 霧社事件; Mandarin pinyin: Wùshè Shìjiàn; Japanese rōmaji: Musha Jiken; Taiwanese POJ: Bū-siā Sū-kiāⁿ) of 1930 was the last major uprising against colonial Japanese forces in Taiwan. In response to long-term oppression by Japanese authorities, the Seediq indigenous group in Wushe attacked the village, killing over 130 Japanese. In response, the Japanese led a relentless counter-attack, killing over 1,000 Seediq in retaliation. The handling of the incident by the Japanese authorities was strongly criticised, leading to many changes in aboriginal policy.
台灣日治時期 (大日本帝國臺灣)(Japanese Rule)
- Capital: Taihoku (Taipei)
- Language(s): Taiwanese, Japanese
- Religion: Shintō a
- Government: Constitutional monarchy
- Emperor of Japan Emperor Meiji 1895–1912
- Emperor of Japan Emperor Taisho 1912–1926
- Emperor of Japan Emperor Showa 1926–1945
- Governor General of Taiwan Kabayama Sukenori 1895–1896
- Governor General Katsura Taro 1896
- Governor General Nogi Maresuke 1896-1898
- Governor General Kodama Gentaro 1898–1906
- Governor General Sakuma Samata 1906–1915
- Historical era Japanese Empire: Conquered October 22, 1895, Surrendered August 15, 1945, Renounced September 8, 1951
- Currency: Taiwanese yen
Post-War Taiwan/臺灣戰後時期 1945–present
Taiwan after World War II (traditional Chinese: 臺灣戰後時期), refers to the period in Taiwan's history, between the end of World War II in 1945 and the present, in which Taiwan and the surrounding islands have been administered under the Republic of China.
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作者管理 語錄編輯 | 語錄分類編輯 (Taiwan's History)